Socioeconomic Impact of Development Projects on the Livelihood of Farmers: A Case Study of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric Project

Main Article Content

Amankwah Emmanuel
Awafo Edward
Atta-Darkwa Thomas

Abstract

The development of major social projects such as hydroelectric dams, roads and mining often result in the loss of properties and sometimes relocation of the affected people or communities. This paper examined the impact of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric project on the livelihood of the people affected, especially farmers in the Bono Region of Ghana. The paper also reviewed the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) report of the project in line with the Environmental Protection Agency requirement, examined the compensation and the living conditions of the farmers in the affected communities. Interviews and focus group discussions of farmers in four communities were conducted which was later followed by the administration of questionnaires to seventy-five (75) farmers. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and Excel software for the development of charts. The review of the ESIA report of the Bui dam showed that an extensive ESIA was conducted with only few lapses outlined in the text. The interviews and the questionnaires  revealed  that  the  farmers  who  were  relocated  have  problems  with  land acquisition, soil fertility and irrigation facilities when they were moved to their new location. There were also concerns about inadequate payment of compensations and unfulfilled promises. However, about 97.3% of the respondents were comfortable at their new location because of the proximity to health services, access to good roads, nice buildings and provision of some basic social amenities such as light and water, as well as possible business and employment opportunities. The paper makes suggestions for improving compensations and resettlement schemes in Ghana.

Keywords:
Environmental and social impact assessment, compensation, farmers’ livelihood, Bui hydro project, resettlement.

Article Details

How to Cite
Emmanuel, A., Edward, A., & Thomas, A.-D. (2020). Socioeconomic Impact of Development Projects on the Livelihood of Farmers: A Case Study of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric Project. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 24(1), 34-44. https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130192
Section
Original Research Article

References

Southern African Development Community (SADC). SADC policy and strategy for environment and sustainable development. Maseru: SADC-ELMS; 1996.

The World Bank Operational Manual (WBOP). Operational Policies; 1999.
Available:http://www.sari-energy.org /training/eia/course_files/WBOP401_envmtal_assess.pdf
(Accessed on 02/06/2018)

Weaver AVB, Keatimilwe K, Tarr P. Environmental impact assessment in Southern Africa’. In IEMA & EIA Centre. Environmental assessment yearbook 2002. Lincoln: IEMA & EIA Centre; 2002.

Rajaram T, Das A. Sustainable frugality through EIA: Role of socio-ecological linkages in poverty alleviation. Manag Environ Qual Int J. 2007;18(5):556-567.

De Wet C. Development-induced displacement. Problems, Policies and People (ed). Berghahn Books; 2006.

ERM. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study of the Bui Hydroelectric Power Project (2007) Final Report. Prepared by Environmental Resources Management Limited in association with SGS Environme; 2007.
Available:www.erm.com

Cernea MM. Reforming the foundations of involuntary resettlement: Introduction in Cernea MM, Mathur HM (Eds), Can compensation prevent impoverishment? Reforming resettlement through invest-ments and benefit-sharing. Oxford University Press; 2008.

Hussein K, Nelson J. Sustainable livelihoods and livelihood diversification- tion. Brighton, Michigan (USA): IDS; 1998.

Chambers R. The Volta resettlement experience. Paul Mall Press, London; 1970.
GREL; 2018.
Available:https://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2018/february-28th/were-paying-adequate-compensation-for-destroyed-cocoa-farms-grel.php
(Accessed on 24.03.2019)

UNDP. Review of Alignment between the Africa Mining Vision (AMV) and Ghana’s Policy/ Legal Frameworks for Solid Minerals; 2015.
Available:https://www.undp.org/content/dam/ghana/docs/Doc/Inclgro/UNDP_GH_INCGRO_AMV-Ghana-Alignment-Review-Final%20(1).pdf
FAO; 2009.
Available:http://www.fao.org/in-action/rights-and-compensation-for-forest-communities-in-ghana/en/
(Accessed on 15/03/2019)

Berkes F. The Intrinsic difficulty of predicting impacts: Lessons from the James Bay Hydro Project. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 1988;8(3):201–50.

Meredith TC. Environmental impact assessment, cultural diversity and sustainable rural development. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 1992;12(1): 125–38.

FAO. An Indigenous people right and a good practice for local communities, Manual for Project Practitioners; 2016.
Available:http://www.fao.org/3/a-i619Oe

Amankwah E. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): A useful tool to address climate change in Ghana. Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. 2013;1(4):94-100.

Ghana Statistical Service (GSS). 2010 Population and Housing census. Summary Report of Final Results. Accra, Ghana; 2012.

Coyne, Bellier. Feasibility studies of the Bui hydroelectric development. Final Report. Republic of Ghana; 1995.

World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Our common future. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997.

Ayee J, Soreide T, Le TM. Political economy of the mining sector in Ghana. Policy Research Working Paper 5730. 2011;48.
Available:https://doi.org/http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDS P/IB/2011/08/24/00015 8349_20110824134316/Rendered/PDF/WPS5779

Opoku-Gakpo J. We’re paying adequate compensation for destroyed cocoa farms – GREL; 2018.
Available:https://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2018/february-28th/were-paying-adequate-compensation-for-destroyed-cocoa-farms-grel.php

Adonteng-Kissi O, Adonteng-Kissi B, Asamoah E. Mining versus farming: An anslysis of the farmers’ livelihood system. International Journal of Sustainability, Economic, Social & Cultural Context. 2016;12(2).

Ghana News Agency (GNA). Iduapriem mine raises crop compensation rate for farmers; 2019.
Available:https://www.newsghana.com.gh/iduapriem-mine-raises- crop-compensation-rate-for-farmers/

Bui Dam resettlements. Livelihoods and institutional challenges; 2009.
Available:http://www.modernghana.com/blogs/250005/31/bui-dam-resettlements-livelihoods-and- institutiona.html
(Accessed on 7/5/18)